As far as jobs are concerned, two spectres are haunting our societies — one that is supposedly destroying jobs, the other that is transforming them:
- the spectre of automation, i.e. the idea that most jobs will disappear as they are replaced by robots or software, which will throw us all into the oblivion of uselessness and poverty;
- the spectre of the gig economy, i.e. the idea that the few remaining jobs won’t be salaried, but rather they will mostly be freelance, thus completing the “great risk shift” that Jacob Hacker wrote about ten years ago.